On December 1,2021, the Russian-American group of researchers published the last (4th) part of the study on the long-livers of the Russian Empire in the period 1836−1914.
The long-livers at the specified time referred to those persons who died at the age of 100 or more years.
The research was published in the historical journal “Bylye Gody” in 4 issues for 2021 (the journal is indexed in the Scopus and Web of Science databases).
The materials for the research were the annual reports of the Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod, for the period from 1836 to 1914. The study provides statistics only on persons of the Orthodox faith.
The work was divided into 4 parts:
The first part covered the period from 1836 to 1849 (at that time only the male Orthodox population was taken into account). The volume of part: 10 pages, 12 tab. Link to the first part: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1614695181.pdf;
The second part covered the period from 1850 to 1875 (the records were maintained of the female and male Orthodox population of Russia). The volume of part: 20 pages, 27 tab. Link to the second part: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1622585209.pdf;
The third part covered the period from 1876 to 1900. The volume of part: 20 pages, 26 tab. Link to the third part: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1630505542.pdf;
The fourth part covered the period from 1901 to 1914. The volume of par: 17 pages, 19 tables. Link to the fourth part: https://bg.cherkasgu.press/journals_n/1638352324.pdf.
The authors came to some conclusions:
- In reports from 1836 to 1849 only the male Orthodox population was taken into account, and from 1850 to 1914 the reports included the Orthodox population of both sexes. In total, from 1836 to 1914 there were 20,423 long-lived Orthodox men, which averaged 300.33 people per year. To determine the gender composition of long-livers, let us turn to statistics for the period from 1850 to 1914, when the Orthodox population of both sexes was taken into account in the Russian Empire. This sample includes data for 57 years. So, at the indicated time, 15 697 long-lived men were registered, whose age exceeded 100 years. Their average annual value was 275.38 people. As for women, over these years their number was 13,044 people, and the average value was 228.84 people per year. Thus, the total number of long-livers of both sexes was in 1850—1914 — 28,741 people (the average annual value was 521.77 people). Among long-livers, men accounted for 54.6 %, and women — 45.4 %. Despite the fact that more boys were born than girls, men in the Russian Empire were more likely to become long-livers than women.
- The analysis of statistical data on dioceses made it possible to identify the territories where the maximum number of long-livers for every thousand people among the deceased was recorded. Thus, the most favorable territories were: the Caucasus (the Georgian Exarchate, including the Vladikavkaz diocese, as well as the Astrakhan diocese); the Ukrainian dioceses (Taurida, Kherson) and the Asian part of Russia (the Far Eastern territory — the diocese of the Annunciation, in addition to Omsk, Yenisei and Turkestan dioceses). Some other dioceses, such as Tobolsk, Ufa and Samara, also had high rates. In general, we can say that these territories had a positive (climatic and geographical) effect on human life expectancy.
- About the maximum age. In the period of 1836−1849, a case of death of a long-liver was recorded in the age range from 160 to 165 years — 1836. In the period of 1850−1875,4 people were recorded who died in the age range from 145 to 150 years (one in 1850,1852 and two in 1859). In the period 1876-1900, one person was recorded in the age range from 135 to 140 years (1888), and in the period of 1901−1910, two people were recorded who died in the age range 130-135 years (1909 and 1910). From the data presented, it can be seen that the maximum life expectancy in the period from 1836 to 1914 was constantly decreasing, even, in our opinion, due to the increasing quality of accounting.
The press release was compiled by the Head of research group, Doctor of Historical Sciences Aleksandr Arvelodovich Cherkasov (Cherkas Global University, Volgograd State University)